PV module or solar
module is a smallest complete environmentally protected
assembly of interconnected solar cells.
PV panel is a group of modules fastened together, pre-assembled
and wired, designed to serve as an installable unit in an
PV array is a mechanically integrated assembly of modules
or panels and its support structure. An array does not include
its foundation, tracking apparatus, thermal control, and
other such components.
What is the energy payback of
Energy payback estimates for both rooftop and ground-mounted
PV systems are roughly the same depending on the technology
and type of framing used. Paybacks for multi-crystalline modules are 2 - 4 years. For amorphous modules, paybacks are 1 - 3 years.
How long do PV panels last?
In photovoltaic electrification, the interaction of sunlight
with certain semiconductor materials makes the electrons free
and becomes electricity. There is no moving parts, therefore,
no vibration in photovoltaic. The lifetime of photovoltaic will
typically last for 20-25 years.
Will PVs efficiency reduce in
Yes, a PV works better and more efficient at cooler temperature.
Because of its efficiency is varied by temperature. PV generates
less energy in winter than summer because of the shorter daytime,
lower sun angles and greater cloud cover.
Why do I need a solar charge controller?
A solar charge controller is an essential part of any PV systems containing batteries. It regulates the voltage and current coming
from the solar panels going to the batteries. A charge controller
prevents batteries from being overcharged, prevents batteries
from discharging through the solar panel at night, helps you
maximize your energy harvesting and prolongs the battery life.
What is 3-step charging?
The 3-step charging provides optimal and safe battery charging
to ensure that battery is properly and fully charged resulting
in enhanced battery performance. Solar charge controller regulates
the voltage and current delivered to battery in three automatic
Bulk Charge: Battery is being
charged up with maximum current, the voltage of the battery
increases gradually. When the battery voltage reaches the
Boost charging voltage the charge controller goes to next
Boost Charge: Battery continues to be
charged at constant voltage. The charging voltage is held
constant at Boost charging voltage providing the battery
to nearly full charge at a slow and safe rate, then goes
to next step.
Float Charge: Voltage is reduced and
held constant at Float charging voltage level in order to
prevent damage and keep battery at a full charge until the
end of day.
How does overcharging damage the
When the battery reaches full charge, it can no longer store
incoming energy. If energy continues to be applied at the full
rate, the battery voltage gets too high. Water separates into
hydrogen and oxygen and bubbles out rapidly. There is excessive
of water and a chance that gasses can ignite and cause a small
explosion. The battery will also degrade rapidly and may possibly
overheat. Excessive voltage can also stress your loads or cause
your inverter to shut off.
What type of inverter do I need? Inverters are used in any solar PV systems where AC power output
is needed. The type and size of inverter necessary depends on
your application. There are two entirely different types of
inverter that based on whether or not utility grid is available
at your location stand-alone (off-grid) inverter and grid
tie (on-grid) inverter.
The stand-alone inverters are common used for homes or business
applications. It covers a wide range of power capacity. To determine
this you must first calculate the maximum amount of load you
will be running on the inverter at one time. The other is the
type of wave form. Sine wave inverter is good for the sensitive
electronic equipments. It generally produces power that is similar
to the quality of utility power. Modified sine wave inverter
is fine for loads that are not supersensitive to clean power.
It is good choice for smaller sized PV system.
What is grid tie or grid connected
inverter? Grid tie inverter or grid connected inverter is used in solar
PV system that is connected to the utility grid. It converts
DC power generated by solar panels or wind generator into AC
power used by AC electrical devices and the surplus power will
sell back to the grid. The grid tie inverter can use with/without
battery bank. For the grid-tie without battery backup is the
simplest and least expensive option for home energy systems.
The grid tie inverter also can be configured with a battery
backup system. There will be some loss in overall efficiency
for feeding the grid which depends on the inverter and the size
and type of batteries.
How Lighting Energy Saver can
help you save the money? Lighting Energy Saver reduces electricity supplied to your lighting
system and provides high energy efficiency energy saving. Your
lamps will prolong life and generate less heat resulting in
less air conditioning bills.
What kind of lamp that Lighting
Energy Saver is applicable to? How much it can save? Lighting Energy Saver is applicable to fluorescent lamps and
gas-discharged lamps, such as high-pressure sodium lamps, low-pressure
sodium lamps, metal halide lamps, etc. The rate of energy saving
of each lamp type shows below.
High-pressure sodium lamp save 45% - 50%
Low-pressure sodium lamp save 35%
Metal halide lamp save 40%
Fluorescent lamp with choke ballast save 25% - 30%
Fluorescent lamp with electronic ballast save 30% - 40%
Compact fluorescent lamp save 30% - 40%